Science & Technology

News early dinosaur species rescued from the vault

Micro-CT scan of Ngwevu intloko skull (Kimberley Chapelle/Wits University)
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A new Dinosaur species– Ngwevu intloko–lay misidentified in university vaults for 30 thirty years until discovered by a PhD student.

A PhD student of the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa– Kimberley Chapelle –has discovered a new dinosaur species in the University’s vaults after it has been laying misidentified in a collection for 30 years.

Ngwevu skull in the collection. (Kimberley Chapelle/Wits University

Chapelle and her team recognised that the dinosaur was not only a new species of sauropodomorph but an entirely new genus. The specimen has now been named Ngwevu intloko — “grey skull” in the Xhosa language — chosen to honour South Africa’s heritage.

Professor Paul Barrett, Chapelle’s PhD supervisor and researcher at the Natural History Museum in the UK explains: “This is a new dinosaur that has been hiding in plain sight.

“The specimen has been in the collections in Johannesburg for about 30 years, and lots of other scientists have already looked at it. But they all thought that it was simply an odd example of Massospondylus.

The specimen was incorrectly identified as an example of Massospondylus-- a Jurassic age prosauropod
The specimen was incorrectly identified as an example of Massospondylus— a Jurassic age prosauropod, above.

Massospondylus was one of the first dinosaurs to reign at the start of the Jurassic period. The animals belonged to a group called the sauropodomorphs that eventually gave rise to the long-necked sauropods–a group containing the Natural History Museum’s iconic dinosaur cast Dippy.

Researchers are now starting to look closer at many of the supposed Massospondylus specimens, believing there to be much more variation than first thought.

Kimberley Chapelle explains why the team were able to confirm that this specimen was a new species: “In order to be certain that a fossil belongs to a new species, it is crucial to rule out the possibility that it is a younger or older version of an already existing species.”

This is a much more difficult task with fossils than it may initially sound, explains Chappelle, as it is rare to have a complete age series of fossils from a single species. Fortunately, Massospondylus — the most commonly found South African dinosaur — has specimens ranging from embryo to adult.

Chapelle continues: “Based on this, we were able to rule out age as a possible explanation for the differences we observed in the specimen now named Ngwevu intloko.”

The new dinosaur has been described from a single fairly complete specimen with a remarkably well-preserved skull.

The new dinosaur was bipedal with a fairly chunky body, a long slender neck and a small, boxy head. It would have measured three metres from the tip of its snout to the end of its tail and was likely an omnivore — feeding on both plants and small animals.

The findings will help scientists better understand the transition between the Triassic and Jurassic period, around 200 million years ago. Known as a time of mass extinction it now seems that more complex ecosystems were flourishing in the earliest Jurassic than previously thought.

Chapelle was joined in the research by her PhD supervisors, Prof Jonah Choiniere (Wits), Dr Jennifer Botha (National Museum Bloemfontein), and Professor Paul Barrett (Natural History Museum, London).

Together, this team of leading researchers have been improving knowledge of South African palaeontology for the last six years. Their new find is detailed in the academic journal, PeerJ.

Professor Barrett explains: “This new species is interesting because we thought previously that there was really only one type of sauropodomorph living in South Africa at this time.

“We now know there were actually six or seven of these dinosaurs in this area, as well as a variety of other dinosaurs from less common groups.”

The teams believe that this means that their ecology was much more complex than palaeontologists currently suspect.

Barrett concludes: “Some of these other sauropodomorphs were like Massospondylus, but a few were close to the origins of true sauropods, if not true sauropods themselves.”

This work shows the value of revisiting specimens in museum collections, as many news species could well be sitting unnoticed gathering dust in cabinets around the world.

Main image caption: Micro-CT scan of Ngwevu intloko skull (Kimberley Chapelle/Wits University)

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